The Oscar-winning actress and previous Golden Globe winner played the role of a close aide to Jobs, the Apple co-founder who died in October 2011.
Kate bested rivals Jane Fonda (Youth), Jennifer Jason Leigh (The Hateful Eight), Helen Mirren (Trumbo) and Alicia Vikander (Ex Machina). (Also Read: Complete List of Winners at the Golden Globe Awards)
"What an incredible year for women in film!" Winslet said, thanking her co-star Michael Fassbender, who portrayed Steve Jobs, and calling him a "legend."
"We were all so impressed by you and overwhelmed by your talent and you set the bar so high for everybody. Thank you for being such an incredible colleague and friend," Kate said of Michael.